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Entering Special Characters

Some characters require special keystrokes to enter.

Keyboard Shortcuts for Macintosh (Apple keyboards)

On MacOS, the Option key functions as a modifier like the Shift key. Hold it down and press another key simultaneously to generate a special character. For Shift+Option, hold down both the Shift and Option keys, and press the necessary letter or number key simultaneously.

Some international characters may require you to hold down a modifier (option or shift+option together) and then press a sequence of two keys.

Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows (PC keyboards)

On Windows, the Alt key functions as a modifier like the Shift key. To make special characters, hold down the Alt key and type in the numbers from the numeric keypad.

On the some small keyboards (e.g., laptop keybaords) you access the “numeric keypad” by pressing the NumLock key and then looking for the keys on your keyboard that double as numeric keypad keys when in NumLock mode. U, I, and O may have the numbers 7, 8, and 9 printed on them, for example. You will need to use those numbers to type special characters.

Special character
Mac
Windows
 
Hold down
and press
Hold down Alt and key
Left single quote
Option
]
0145
Right single quote
Shift + Option
]
0146
Left double quote
Option
[
0147
Right double quote
Shift + Option
[
0148
En dash
Option
- (hyphen)
0150
Em dash
Shift + Option
- (hyphen)
0151
Trademark
Option
2
0153
®
Registered trademark
Option
r
0174
©
Copyright
Option
g
0169
¢
Cent
Option
4
0162
£
Pound
Option
3
0163
¥
Yen
Option
y
0165
°
Degree
Shift + Option
8
0176
±
Plus/minus
Shift + Option
=
0177
µ
Micron
Option
m
0181
¿
Inverted question mark
Shift + Option
?
0191
¡
Inverted exclamation mark
Option
1
0161