My research activities involve the study of the three-dimecsional structures of steroids and the enzymes that control their synthesis and metabolism, the binding proteins that influence their tissue distribution and the receptors that control their hormonal action. Of particular interest are short chain dehydrogenase enzymes that control the balance of active and
inactive steroids involved in normal processes, neoplasia and hig blood pressure. We are studing the evolution of this family of enzymes that extend form bacteria to man and have as substrates sugars, retinals, steroids and other small molecules. I am also engaged in the study of antibiotics and toxins that form membrane ion channels, the mechanism of ion channel formation, ion channel blocking and ion transplant.