A core portion of your clinical practicum, this rotation trains you extensively in noninvasive cardiology.

You’ll learn how to perform transesophageal echocardiograms (TEEs) — of which our division performs 750 annually — and stress echocardiograms, both exercise and dobutamine. You’ll work with hospital sonographers in performing transthoracic echocardiography (TTE).

With our faculty, you’ll interpret and report on images, gaining a basic understanding of echocardiography-related physics, ultrasound artifacts and how to recognize cardiac abnormalities. You’ll use 3-D and contrast echocardiography, also gaining experience in strain imaging.

During the electrocardiography portion of this rotation, you’ll interpret ECGs, including ambulatory Holter monitors.

Most of your echocardiography training takes place at Buffalo General Medical Center.

Your ambulatory electrocardiography training takes place at the Buffalo VA Medical Center.


Throughout the course of fellowship, you’ll:

  • read at least 300 TTEs
  • read at least 3,000 ECGs
  • perform approximately 70 TEEs 

If interested in pursuing more advanced training in echocardiography, you may:

  • read up to 600 TTEs
  • perform more than 100 TEEs

Years and Length of Rotation

  • 3 four-week modules during year 1
  • 2 four-week modules during year 2
  • 1 four-week module during year 3
  • up to an additional 6 modules available to third-year fellows pursuing careers in noninvasive cardiology
  • up to level 3 COCATS training available

Clinical Sites

Patient Population

  • predominantly inpatient population